Water Shop - since 1988.

          In this free article we have relied on various sources for information:

          There are links to the various web sites through out.

          For you to do your own research & Verification.

Source:NSF NSF International (formerly US National Sanitation Foundation)

Source: CSIRO

Source: Holistic Healing

Source: Choice

Source: NHMRC National Health & Medical Research Council of Australia

Source:Australian Government Federal & State Government Water Links

Your Body & Water Disinfection Chemicals? Neutralizers?
Quick Facts Copper poisoning? Ozone.
Aluminium? Detoxification? Protozoa?
Aluminium in food and water? Dieting & Pure drinking water? Reverse Osmosis deionisation?
Minerals from Distilled Water? Distillation Units ? Reverse Osmosis Systems?
Minerals needed for Health? Fluoride-Toxic Chemicals? Sediment filters?
Bacteria? Fluoridation status of some countries? Shower filter?
Blue Green Algae? Giardia & Cryptosporidium parasites? Ultra Violet?
Bottled water? Home Water Treatment Devices? Viruses?
Carbon Filters Ion exchange? Water & Health problems?
Catalytic Converters? Ionized water? What is TDS?
Ceramic Water Filters? Iron Removal Equipment? Water Softeners?
Chlorine and by-products? Magnetic Systems? Water Purification Types?
Contaminants in water? Magnetic De-scalers? Water problems solutions?


-The human body on average is over 70% water. Other vital organs and systems have an even higher concentration: the brain is over 75%, the blood over 80%, and the liver is, amazing 96% water. To a large degree, we are what we drink. One needs to first understand that water (H2O) plays a role in nearly every chemical reaction in the body. Aside from aiding in digestion and absorption of food, water regulates body temperature and blood circulation, carries nutrients to cells, and removes toxins and other wastes. Water also cushions joints and protects tissues and organs, including the spinal cord, from shock and damage. When water is pure enough, it also acts as an electro negative enhancer.
It is estimated that over 80% of our population suffers energy loss due to minor dehydration. It has been medically proven that a drop of as little as 5% in body fluids will cause a 25% to 30% loss of energy in the average person... a 15% drop in body fluids causes death! Water is what our liver uses to metabolise fat into useable energy. Drinking more pure, healthy water will help metabolise and shed stored fat resulting in more energy and less fat. Furthermore, our bodies lose water through evaporation from the surface of our skin even without rigorous exercise, and of course we also pass water in our urine. During the course of an average day, a healthy adult can lose eight to 10 cups of water. Add exercise, and this number rises considerably. Many drinks like soda, coffee, and tea contain caffeine, which has a diuretic effect leading to increased loss of fluids through frequent urination. The function of every cell in our body is controlled by electrical signals sent through our nervous system from the brain. Our nerves, in reality, are an elaborate system of tiny waterways. If the fluid inside our nerves thickens due to dehydration, or is contaminated with synthetic chemicals or toxic heavy metals like lead, the vital signals can get distorted. Many experts now believe that the distortion of these signals may be the root cause of many degenerative diseases and neurological illnesses including Attention Deficit Disorder, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, anxiety, depression, and even Alzheimer's disease. Considering the major role that water plays in the function of our brain and nervous system, its purity is possibly the most basic and essential key to healthy longevity. Proper digestion and nutrient absorption depend on healthy intake of water. In order for our body to get the nutritional value from our foods and supplements, we must consume plenty of pure water. Since sugars and carbohydrates are absorbed more rapidly, even a slight degree of dehydration can have a big impact on the amount of nutrition we derive from the foods we eat.
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• Water is our most essential nutrient.
• Water contains different amounts of dissolved inorganic and organic compounds.
• The Water Authorities regulates public water systems.
Introduction - People can survive days, weeks or months without food, but only about four days without water. The body
Uses water for digestion, absorption, circulation, transporting nutrients, building tissues, carrying away waste and maintaining body temperature. The average adult consumes and excretes about 10 cups of water daily. Adults should drink six to eight cups of liquids per day. Although most of this liquid should come from beverages, food supplies some water. Our bodies make water as a by-product in the breakdown of fats, sugars and proteins to energy. Water is always two parts hydrogen to one part Oxygen. Beyond that, its composition depends on where it comes from, how it is processed and handled. Water can be hard or soft, natural or modified, bottled or tap, carbonated or still. According to whom you listen to our bodies are 70% to 90% made up of water, drinking 6 - 8 glasses of pure, safe water will help safeguard our health and the health of our family! Please-take a minute to read below and you determine whether or not some of the potentially harmful contaminants that may be present in YOUR drinking water may be harmful to your health!
Tap water may contain many impurities, both natural and artificial. Some are not dangerous or only change how the water looks, tastes or smells. Others can give you an instant infection or damage your health over a long period.
Chemicals (such as chlorine and fluoride) are added to some water supplies in the treatment plant. There are discussions over potential health risks as a result. The benefit of using the chemicals is still thought to be more important than any potential risk.
Microbiological-Supplying water that's clean and free from pathogenic micro-organisms (those that can make you ill) is the most vital task for water supply authorities.
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ALUMINUM: Chemicals are used in a process called flocculation, which gathers suspended particles from the water, making it clearer. While for the most part, most of the aluminium used can be filtered out of the water, some amounts may pass through. Some water authorities have phased out the use of aluminium chemicals.
Why is aluminium used in drinking water systems? Good water treatment is a multi-stage process. In order for components of a treatment system to work well, the water must be brought to certain quality levels. In most treatment systems, one of the final stages involves disinfection. For effective disinfection, water must already be of a high quality. This allows the disinfectant to reach its targets, instead of letting contaminants ‘hide' in turbid or silty water. Aluminium coagulants remove sediment, nutrients, and microbes and dissolved organic carbon, improving greatly the quality of water. Good coagulation clarifies water to the point where disinfection is easier, better and safer.
Common coagulants in water treatment include salts or polymers of both aluminium and iron. The advantage of aluminium compounds is that they settle out a wide variety of unwanted material without the taste and staining problems associated with iron. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
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ALUMINUM IN FOOD & WATER. 1 November 2004-Concerns have been raised in the Australian media about levels of aluminium found in bottled water of up to 1.4mg a litre. Overall, the intake of aluminium from bottled drinking water represents a very small percentage of the total exposure of Australians and New Zealanders. FSANZ considers that levels of aluminium in bottled drinking water and in the food supply are safe.
Reasons: Aluminium occurs in bottled and tap water because of natural leaching from rocks and, in the case of tap water only, from the use of aluminium coagulants in treatment. There is no safety limit for aluminium in water set in Australia or by the World Health Organization (WHO)WHO But both the WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have voluntary quality guidelines that recommend maximum levels of 0.2mg per litre to ensure the water looks clear. Surveys in the US and United Kingdom have found aluminium levels in natural water sources ranging from 0.014mg a litre to 1.2 mg a litre. In Australia aluminium levels have been found in water sources as high as 18mg a litre due to clay minerals that contain alumino-silicates. In Australian adults, the mean aluminium intake from food and water is estimated to be 5-7 mg /day. Aluminium is permitted as a food additive and is used in colourings, emulsifiers, Stabilisers and anti-caking agents. Drinking water contributes to less than 2% of total aluminium consumption. Pharmaceuticals (such as antacids and buffered analgesics) potentially contribute substantially to the total body burden of aluminium (up to 5000 mg/day in users of antacids). There is also some absorption through the skin from deodorants containing aluminium. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) sets maximum limits for a range of naturally occurring chemicals in bottled water where there could be a safety risk if too high a level was consumed. These include levels for arsenic, barium, borate, cadmium, chromium VI, copper, cyanide, fluoride, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate, nitrite, selenium, sulphide and zinc. All these chemicals may also be found at low levels in tap water. There are also limits for bacterial contamination and levels of organic matter. FSANZ has not set an upper limit for aluminium in bottled water. Aluminium in the diet from food and water is poorly absorbed through the gut. Less than 1% of aluminium in water is absorbed and the rest being excreted through the faeces. Of the aluminium absorbed, most is excreted via the kidneys and only a very small amount accumulates in bone, liver and brain tissues. In the general population, the major concern is related to the association between the intake of aluminium and the neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Higher than average levels of aluminium have also been found in the brains of Alzheimer patients, but the World Health Organization (WHO) has expressed strong reservations about drawing a causal relationship between aluminium in drinking water and Alzheimer's disease as there are many confounding factors.
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ARE THERE MINERALS MISSING from distilled water that my body needs? Can I get minerals from water? - A. Generally Minerals in water are Inorganic and the Body is Organic! It is true that you need minerals, but these are best obtained from your food and food supplements. There are two sources of minerals: organic and inorganic. Our bodies cannot easily assimilate minerals that come from an inorganic source such as the water we drink. Our bodies receive the minerals they assimilate from organic sources such as the food we eat. Green, leafy vegetable, meat, and dairy products are all good sources.
Distillation removes the minerals out of the water before they can enter the body's system, and distilled water may also remove mineral deposits already there(in arthritic joints, for example). The minerals our bodies depend on are absorbed and remain in the tissues. Therefore, distilled water is best as it removes virtually all of the contaminants from your water. Of course, we do need some inorganic minerals, like sodium, but these are also found in abundant supply in food . Bacteria: Most pathogenic bacteria that may be found in water come from pollution by human or animal faeces.
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Some people wonder, when fully purifying water, if the lost 'trace minerals' mean a dietary deficiency. These minute amounts of minerals are not essential to health - and they are not in a digestible organic form. For example, the traces of calcium that may be present in some water, is not the same calcium you find in milk; it's the type of calcium used to make concrete. We obtain our 'essential minerals' and other nutrients from food, not water. We are yet to see empirical evidence that inorganic traces of minerals in water are essential minerals for human health. The inorganic minerals in water are for plants to take up. Water is for hydration and cleansing, and makes up about 70% of the human body.
Rainwater* doesn't contain trace minerals - they are bits of dissolved dirt and rock collected when water flows on the ground, being a natural solvent. In any case, you would have to drink thousands of litres of water to get the same level of 'minerals' you'd find in one apple. If you choose a Purifier that leaves trace minerals in, then you also leave most metals and in-organic chemicals in your daily water (and fluoride). *Rain tank water typically contains bacteria, from tiny particles of bird droppings and other rotting organics. A water filter is recommended for rain tanks (drinking) to remove bacteria at least.
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BACTERIA: Most pathogenic bacteria that may be found in water come from pollution by human or animal faeces. Coliform bacteria are common in the environment. However, the presence of these bacteria in drinking water is usually a result of a problem with the treatment system or the pipes which distribute water, and indicates that the water may be contaminated with germs that can cause disease. Faecal Coliform and E coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can cause short-term effects, such as diarrhoea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms.
Turbidity has no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. Turbidity may indicate the presence of disease causing organisms. These organisms include bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhoea, and associated headaches.
Cryptosporidium is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. It causes cryptosporidiosis, a mild gastrointestinal disease. However, the disease can be severe or fatal for people with severely weakened immune systems.
Giardia Lamblia is a parasite that enters lakes and rivers through sewage and animal waste. It causes gastrointestinal illness (e.g. diarrhoea, vomiting, and cramps).
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BLUE GREEN ALGAE - More toxic than cyanide!
Blue green algae toxins attack the liver and can cause hepatitis, cirrhosis and cancer, as well as gastroenteritis and dermatitis New found fame has escalated toxic blue-green algae from a naturally occurring phenomenon, to one of the nation's most critical water quality issues. The presence of blue-green algae in Australian rivers, lakes, dams and estuaries is widespread. Every mainland State has recorded outbreaks and the threat they pose has been well publicised by the media.
Blue-green algae, known within the scientific community as Cyanobacteria, grow naturally in most bodies of water. Microscopic plants. Algae thrive on a combination of nutrients, light, warmth and calm conditions. Blue-green algae can be found at various depths within a body of water. However, when conditions are favourable a bloom is triggered and the algae will appear in abundance at the surface. Algal blooms often take on the appearance of bright green sawdust before forming a mat or scum on water surfaces. Their smell ranges from musty and earthy odours to a putrid stench, which is most noticeable when decomposition begins. A concern to health and the environment There are many species of blue-green algae but only a few are toxin producing. In the non-toxic form, the algae make drinking water unattractive and smelly. The toxic varieties are a major health and ecological concern. There are three main genera of toxin producing algae in Australia.
Anabaena produces an alkaloid nerve toxin, which can cause muscular and respiratory disorders; Microcystis and Nodularia produce peptide toxins which can kill liver cells. No human deaths have been recorded following consumption of water infected by toxic algae. However, several ailments are associated with human consumption or skin contact. These include gastroenteritis, liver damage and dermatitis. There is also concern that the toxins promote liver cancer.
Extract from special article has been contributed by the Institute of Natural Resources and Environment Division of Water Resources, Griffith Laboratory, CSIRO.)
The best treatment method that is widely available for the removal of toxins associated with blue green algae is to use carbon employed as a tertiary treatment or in direct filtration mode." Gary Jones, CSIRO
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BOTTLED WATER-The bottled water craze is so big that many soft drink manufacturers predict that within a short time, water will create more revenue for them than their other products.
1) Yet is it really worth almost double petrol?
2) The public spend billions of dollars on something supposed to be "pure", or drawn from "springs", and because many of us don't like the chemical taste of tap water we fall for it.
How does bottled water compare with free tap water?
1) The notion that bottled water was somehow more "pure" than tap water was incorrect. "Tap water is as healthy for you as bottled water - it's no different," according to many tests.
2) The analysis tested three tap water samples and three bottled waters for bacterial contamination, impurities that affect taste such as dissolved solids, and other factors it also screened the samples for the minerals calcium, magnesium, sodium (a measure of salt), fluoride and nitrate. Neither tap nor bottled water samples had detectable bacterial contamination, and all were well within guideline limits for the other substances.
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Carbon Filters reduce or remove? Carbon is effective in the Reduction of:
• Chlorine
• Ammonia
• VOC's- Volatile Organic Chemicals-Chlorine, Trihalomethanes, Pesticides & Herbicides
• Does carbon reduce or remove heavy metals-Generally No, although some are rated for Lead reduction
Charcoal water filters are available in many forms
• Carbon Block is a solidified form of honeycombed carbon. It is the best form of filter but flow rate is significantly slower than with loose charcoal, but if we subscribe to the theory the slower the flow the longer the contact time = better filtration.
• Activated Silver Impregnated Charcoal. This adds chloramines exclusion and bacteria killing ability to the basic carbon.
• Micron Rating. Anything 1 micron rating or below will inhibit Cryptosporidium and Guardia as the cysts are larger than this in size.
• Viruses cannot be inhibited by a filter with a micron rating of more than 0.01 microns.
• Carbon filters cannot change the pH balance of the water. If you have acidic water, it will still be there, as the minerals causing the acidity will be dissolved and therefore will pass through the carbon filter.
• Carbon filters may be at risk of mould attack unused over extensive periods.
• A filter gathers the 'rubbish' in your tap water and the organic component of this, is quite capable of rotting. Add a little summer heat & humidity to the damp internals of a carbon filter and you may be at risk. Taste & odour will always tell, and if the taste of the water changes after an extended period of non-use, change the filter. Note also that carbon filters reduce in efficiency the longer they are in use. For this reason regular filter replacement is essential
Chemical Reduction Cartridge filters-For problems such as a bad taste or Odour, a carbon filter may be all you need. Possible health problems require a much more advanced system. Eg: to filter out Giardia or cryptosporidium, you will need a filter that's rated in the 'absolute' micron range.
The main materials used in filter cartridges are:
Activated carbon (charcoal), either granular, or in a block, that attracts impurities to its surface. What it can generally remove to a certain extent: Chlorine, trihalomethanes (THM), colour, odour, taste, pesticides. What it generally can't remove: Metals (for example, lead and copper), fluoride. Pros and cons: Relatively cheap to buy. However, it requires frequent replacement of the filter cartridge, so there are ongoing costs.
Activated Carbon and Mechanical Filters-Activated carbon filters (also called carbon filters) treat general taste and odour problems, including chlorine residue. When water flows through carbon filters, contaminants adsorb or stick to the surfaces of the carbon particles. Activated carbon filters are reported to be the best method available for removing specific organic chemicals, including some pesticide residues. Studies have also shown that GAC (granular activated carbon) adsorption is an effective method for radon removal. Mechanical filters trap, through a straining process, sand, dirt, and other suspended particles to reduce turbidity in water.
General Description Carbon filter devices are available in several sizes and designs. Small units fit on kitchen taps and treat only 100 to 300 gallons effectively before a filter change is necessary. Large under-sink units, often called in-line filters, are designed to treat up to 1500 gallons. On such a unit the canister is connected to the cold water line. Other styles are available that treat all household water. An extra filter cartridge or canister is often included with the initial purchase. Check on availability of filters and cost of replacement filters at time of purchase; they may be available from the same dealer, at plumbing supply stores, or by mail order.
Design greatly influences efficiency. Variations include use of powdered carbon or blocks of carbon instead of granular carbon. Those filters containing more carbon will usually treat more water before replacement is necessary.
Mechanical filters are frequently combined with activated carbon filters. Small mechanical filters, using spun cellulose, attach to a tap or can be installed under a sink. Filters to treat all the water supplied to the house may use sand or gravel.
Limitations Activated carbon filters do not remove nitrate, bacteria, or metals. Concern about the growth of harmful bacteria in these filters has been raised in the past. However, recent research by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indicates that the types of bacteria found in water samples obtained from this type of filter create no health hazard if the filter is properly maintained. As a precaution, however, activated carbon filters are recommended for use only on microbiologically safe water.
Maintenance Setting up a regular maintenance schedule for filter replacement is necessary, because there is no easy method for detecting that a filter is no longer working effectively. The frequency of filter cleaning or replacement depends largely on the level of pollutants in the water supply and the quantity of water flowing through the filter.
A mechanical filter may become clogged if not cleaned or replaced periodically, resulting in loss of water pressure and a reduction in flow. Filters using sand or gravel require automatic or manual back washing to remove trapped particles.
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CERAMIC CARTRIDGES Gravity Purifiers are able to significantly remove: Bacteria and Cysts (E.Coli, Giardia, Cryptosporidium)
Suspended Solids (Dirt, Rust and Algae) Chlorine (Taste Problems) Hydrogen Sulphide (Odour Problems) Organic Pesticides (Lindane) Dissolved Metals (Lead, Iron)
Ceramic Cartridges are made of micro-porous ceramic material, internally coated with an antibacterial treatment of Silver Nitrate. Within the Ceramic Cartridge is a Granular Activated Carbon Core. For optimal performance, replace the ceramic cartridges every 4 months.
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CATALYTIC CONVERTERS-They convert contaminants such as, heavy metals, chlorine, pollutants and viruses into innocuous oxidized form. -Systems that can be rushed to problem areas, and supply fresh, safe water immediately.
(Back to Top)Ceramic Water Filters-Ceramic water filters come as a cartridge that fits a normal bench top filter or a Drip filter (pottery or clay pots). Some ceramics incorporate nano o-silver impregnated into a porous outer shell that can entrap bacteria down to a .22 of a micron in particle size [1/100,000 of an inch]. Laboratory analysis considers a filtering medium with an effective size of .01 micron to .45 micron to be bacteriologically sterile and .45 micron to 1.0 micron to be bacteriologically safe. Re growth of bacteria that becomes trapped either on the outside of the element or in the ceramic's pores is controlled by the silver which, on contact with water, releases small quantities of positively charged metals ions. The flow rate of the ceramic filter may be renewed by the brushing of its outer surface. Flow rate of ceramic water filters are slow.
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CHEMICAL Pesticides and herbicides can leach into waterways. Some are claimed to be potentially carcinogenic and can last in the environment for an extended time. Low concentrations of these chemicals have occasionally been found, our drinking water is usually free when tested. However, not all water authorities check for them regularly.
Nitrate/nitrite: These chemicals in waterways are the result of sewage and fertiliser run-off. In areas where nitrate is a problem, the water authorities will usually advise people to drink bottled or rainwater.
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CHLORINE and chlorination by-products: Chlorine or chloramines is regularly added to kill bugs in the water that passes through the authorities treatment plant, and to protect against recontamination while the water's pumped from the water from the treatment plant to your home. These chemicals can - depending on a number of factors - react with naturally occurring organic substances in the water to form a range of potentially harmful by-products (mainly so-called trihalomethanes, THM). The risk posed by by-products is considered to be smaller than the potentially health problems posed by the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms.
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CONTAMINANTS in water?-Contaminants that may be in untreated water include micro-organisms such as viruses and bacteria; inorganic contaminants such as salts and metals; pesticides and herbicides; organic chemical contaminants from industrial processes and petroleum use; and radioactive contaminants
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COPPER POISONING-If you drink water that contains higher than normal levels of copper, you may experience vomiting, diarrhoea, stomach cramps, and nausea. High intakes of copper can cause liver and kidney damage and even death. Very young children are sensitive to copper, and long-term exposure to high levels of copper water may cause liver damage and death … We do not know if copper can cause birth defects in children. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Public Health Statement 1990
Most of Australia's drinking water is by nature soft, acidic and corrosive. Chlorine is also acidic and corrosive. When you add the two together you get a powerfully corrosive mixture that is not easy to manipulate or control. One consequence of this is the increasing occurrence of so-called "blue" water, telltale symptoms of the poisonous corrosion of copper water pipes. Corrosion of domestic copper plumbing is now a serious heath problem. Copper corrosion is widespread throughout eastern Australia. A 1999 Queensland Department Report indicated that thousands of children at country schools were drinking water contaminated with lead, copper, and other metals from school drinking fountains. These residues, caused by the action of acid water on copper and brass, can have significant long-term health effects on children including impaired intellectual development. What steps can you take if you suspect that your copper plumbing is corroding?
Corrosion is more likely if your house or apartment is less than five years old, the water is soft, and it sits in the pipes undisturbed for several hours.
Researchers have found that first flush tap water - the water that comes out as soon as you turn on the tap can be a major source of lead and copper contamination. It takes about 10 litres of water to flow through your tap to assure its safety. This should be done every time the system remains unused for four hours or more.
The only way to be sure about the levels of lead and copper in your household water is to have the water tested by a competent laboratory. Testing is especially important in high-rise buildings, because flushing may not be effective. Unlike household supplies, the volume of water necessary to flush all of the polluted water from the pipelines of a building fifteen or twenty stories high, makes flushing impractical.
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DETOXIFICATION is probably the single most important component to long-term health.. and one that relies almost exclusively on an adequate intake of pure water. Water is our body's primary means of flushing out toxins; the key to disease prevention. In our industrialized “chemical society” we are exposed to literally hundreds of harmful substances daily. Our air, our foods, and everything we touch.. contain traces of harmful chemicals. Unfortunately we can’t keep toxins from getting into our body, but we can help our body to get rid of them by drinking plenty of pure water. The more pure water we drink.. the more we allow our body to purify itself.
The quality of the water we drink is equally as important as the amount. If water already contains chlorine and other chemical contaminants it has less ability to carry toxins out of our body. If we consume water containing traces of synthetic chemicals, we force our liver and kidneys to be the filter, ultimately damaging or destroying two of our most vital organs. With an abundant intake of pure, healthy water we allow our body to perform all the healing processes that it is naturally capable of.
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DIETING the role of pure drinking water in dieting-When we diet, our bodies destroy fats and require even more water to eliminate the waste produced than under normal conditions. Drinking adequate amounts of water, when dieting significantly improves weight loss, conserves muscle tone, and keeps the skin supple. Paradoxically, it also minimizes water retention. Without adequate water, many adverse effects occur that slow our ability to loose weight. Weight loss is primarily the result of our liver converting stored fat into usable energy. This process not only requires sufficient water intake, but also can be greatly accelerated by consuming an abundance of pure BEV drinking water. Water also suppresses the appetite naturally and helps digest our food properly. When we consume too little water the upper and lower intestine have reduced ability to absorb nutrients. The result is that most of the value of our foods and supplements are lost and pass through our body without being properly digested. Sugars and carbohydrates are easier to digest than other nutrients like protein, so without enough water, we add calories without nutrition. Food cravings are primarily the result of nutrient deficiencies it's our body's way of telling us we need something. If our food is not properly digested nutrient uptake is not sufficient and the body responds by telling us we need something more through food cravings. When we drink too little water, the body reacts and starts to retain water. This can lead to swollen hands, legs and feet. But when we drink enough water our bodies eliminate the excess through urination. Metabolism breaks food down and turns it into energy. A fast metabolism burns more calories than a slow one. Water is an essential component in your metabolism's chemical reactions, so if you're not drinking enough, you won't burn as many calories as you can. The effects of dehydration on weight loss are many: Your weight loss will slow. Your metabolism is one of the first body systems to slow down when you are dehydrated. A sluggish metabolism cannot burn calories efficiently. Your digestion will suffer. Water is essential for digestion and elimination. Poor digestion means you won't be absorbing the available nutrients in your food. Your body will send signals in the form of food cravings for the nutrients your body lacks. You'll feel 'fake' hunger. When dehydrated our bodies send signals that are often confused with hunger. You may end up answering the thirst impulse with food. If you're dieting and feel hungry, reach first for a glass of pure BEV quality water. This will often reduce your hunger pangs and get you past the craving. You won't get the full benefit of exercise. Metabolism increases with exercise, and (as mentioned earlier) water is essential to maximize your metabolism. To maximize weight loss, drink plenty of pure BEV quality water before, during, and after your workout
Should I drink more when dieting?
• A big glass of water when you feel hungry and prior to a meal or snack fills the stomach briefly and makes you feel fuller and you generally stop eating sooner.
• Breaking down body fat and body muscle during weight loss produces wastes that must be eliminated from the body through the kidneys. Drinking plenty of water is important to keep the kidneys functioning to remove these wastes, from the Body.
• High-protein diets generate more waste products from digestion, and from breaking down stored fat. Kidney function is even more essential when on a high-protein diet.
Drinking water briefly increases metabolism
Drinking 500 mL of water (a half-litre or about a pint) increased the study participants' metabolism briefly - for about a half hour. Eight glasses of water a day?
The study provides some support for the general recommendation to drink eight glasses of water a day while dieting. For most people that would add a Litre or two to their regular water intake. The extra calorie-burn would be about 100 calories a day if drinking 2 litres (2 quarts or 4 water-bottles full) more than usual. Dangers of Too Much Water
Don't start drinking an extra gallon of water a day - that can kill you, especially if you are fasting or eating very little. Water taken in must be in balance with body salt - electrolytes. Drinking and Walking Exercise such as walking causes the metabolism to rise and body water to be lost through increased respiration and sweat. Walkers should drink a large glass of water an hour before walking, and then drink about a cup of water every mile. When you finish walking, drink a glass of water. Guidelines for the marathon and half-marathon now say to "drink when thirsty" rather than pushing water, in order to prevent hyponatremia - drinking too much with replacing electrolytes
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DISINFECTION (eg chlorine, ammonia, aluminium etc) usually kills all bacteria. Another possible threat is bacteria increasing in the water mains. That's why water authorities try to ensure a residue of chlorine to guard the water from the treatment plant to your home.
1) Many council water suppliers add a disinfectant to drinking water to kill germs such as Giardia and e coli. Council water suppliers may add more disinfectant, during periods of storms, low reservoir levels, or summer months to guarantee that these germs are killed.
2) Chlorine. Some people, who use drinking water containing chlorine, could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose and or stomach discomfort.
3) Chloramines. Some people, who use drinking water containing chloramines, could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose and or stomach discomfort or anaemia.
4) Chlorine Dioxide. Some infants and young children, who drink water containing chlorine dioxide, could experience nervous system effects and may occur in foetuses of pregnant or may experience anaemia.
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1) Total Trihalomethanes. Some people who drink water containing Trihalomethanes, over many years may experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or central nervous systems, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
2) Halo acetic Acids. Some people who drink water containing halo acetic acids, over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
3) Bromate. Some people who drink water containing bromate, over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
4) Chlorite. Some infants and young children, who drink water containing chlorite, could experience nervous system effects and may occur in foetuses of pregnant women, some people may experience anaemia.
Disinfection Methods Chlorination-Both municipal systems and households can disinfect water by adding chlorine. Household systems commonly use liquid chlorine bleach injected into the water by one of several types of pumps.
Chlorination does not remove nitrate or other chemicals, but may oxidize organics and some minerals such as iron Chlorine metering pumps must be calibrated and maintained carefully using a carbon filter after chlorination will remove any excess chlorine and chlorine based chemicals that may form
Other Methods Other methods of disinfecting water include boiling distilling pasteurising treating with ultra-violet light, and treating with ozone Chlorination distillation or boiling for 15 minutes are the usual methods used to purify water for household use. Disinfection by ozonation or ultraviolet light methods are replacing chlorination in some water treatment plants, and are becoming more popular for home uses. Some filtration units with silver-coated activated charcoal blocks are being sold for removal or killing of bacteria before purchasing such a unit, evaluate it carefully and check for sufficient test data and certification to assure its effectiveness. What are trihalomethanes (THM’s)? THM’s are chemical compounds that are formed when chlorine mixes with naturally occurring organics in water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted tests, which determined that chloroform (one of the THM’s) is carcinogenic when consumed by laboratory animals in large quantities over a prolonged period of time, and is a suspected carcinogen for people. EPA set a standard of 100 parts per billion as the safe maximum level of THM’s in drinking water.
Halogenated organics are formed when chlorine is added to a water supply containing certain organics. Called trihalomethanes (THM) these reaction products are suspected carcinogens and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has imposed maximum allowable limits in municipal supplies.
To reduce the potential for the formation of THM’s, many US municipal supplies are converting their chlorine (Cl2) disinfection method to chloramine addition.
Chloramines are chemical complexes formed from the reaction between ammonia and chlorine. They are more attractive to some municipal water suppliers because unlike chlorine, chloramines do not combine with organics in water to form THMs.
Chloramines can exist in three forms: Môn chloramine (NH2Cl); dichloramine (NHCl2) and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3)
The effects of chloramines on water chemistry and the equipment/methods used to treat chloraminated streams should be understood as dealers will encounter this constituent with more frequency.
Many similarities exist between free chlorine and chloramine's effects on equipment and methods of treatment. Yet there exists enough differences to warrant approaching applications from a knowledgeable perspective.
Unfortunately, the newness of this aspect of water treatment does not allow all questions to be fully addressed. Indeed, if any conclusion can be drawn it is that too little has been researched on how to remove chloramines once they are introduced in water.
Chloramines are biocides. Like Cl2 they are oxidants and kill bacteria by penetrating their cell walls and disrupting their metabolism. However, chloramines are much slower to react. They remain as residual in water being consumed as they come in contact with bacteria or break down over time as a matter of course.
As with chlorine, municipalities aim for 1 to 2 milligrams per litre (mg/L) chloramine residual in the potable water supply.
Organic chloramines cannot be distinguished from the other forms of chloramines with standard methods of chloramine analysis. Chloramines are not highly disassociated (in other words only minimally ionic). That fact and their low molecular weight make them difficult to remove by reverse osmosis (RO).
The Môn chloramine form is the best biocide and is the dominant specie at pH 7 and greater. Since slightly alkaline waters are less corrosive, municipalities in many cases maintain the Môn chloramine form and reduce corrosion potential at the same time. At these alkaline pH levels, chlorine exists as the hypo chlorite ion (OCl), which has a higher oxidative potential than hypochlorous acid (HOCl), but is 80 to 100 times less effective as a disinfectant.
Why remove chloramines? Like any other molecule, chloramines contribute to the overall total dissolved solids content of the water and like chlorine, are selectively reactive and may have deleterious effects on downstream processes. In equilibrium with chloramines are trace amounts of ammonia and/or hypochlorite ions. Their (NH3 and HOCl) presence also must be recognized when one is designing an ultra pure treatment system to remove chloramines.
Distillation or evaporation does not remove chloramines effectively. During distillation the chloramines would be volatilised and carried over to the product water (distillate). This is especially important to keep in mind in the pharmaceutical, power and laboratory markets due to their heavy use of distillation technology. The effects of reactive chlorinated materials on their products are of special concern.
Chloramine removal by RO has not been well documented. Preliminary indications are that cellulose acetate (CA) membranes will not reject significant percentages of the mono chloramine form. Much like chlorine, it will pass through to the permeate side and thus work as a sanitizer on downstream portions of the system. Dichloramine and trichloramine forms would be expected to have greater rejection potential due to their larger mass and higher ionic character, however, precise data is not available.
Even more limited is experience on PA-type RO membranes. Historically very sensitive to oxidants such as chlorine, PA membrane use has been limited to water free of any such disinfectants. However, chloramines have a significantly lower oxidative potential than the hypochlorite ion or hypochlorous acid. PA-type tolerance to water containing chloramines would be expected to be much greater compared to chlorine. This would certainly be even more true for newer generation thin film composite (TFC) membranes purported to have greater chlorine tolerance.
At this time no PA-type system should be exposed to >0.2 parts per million (ppm) chloramines. However, the effects of chloramines on PA membrane are of interest because they may have potential as a sanitizing agent once the development of a moderately oxidant tolerant PA membrane has been realized.
Due to tighter pore structure, TFC membranes would be expected to reject a higher percentage of chloramines than cellulosic membranes. Indeed, one report of up 90 percent rejection of the monochloramine form has been heard.
“ALWAYS US AN RO WHICH INCORPORATES A QUALITY CARBON FILTER” The very latest 4-5-6 Stage Reverse Osmosis System are most efficient in removing things like Chloramines. .
Why do kidney dialysis patients have to take special precautions? In the dialysis process, water comes in contact with the blood across a permeable membrane. Chloramines in that water would be toxic, just as chlorine is toxic, and must be removed from water used in kidney dialysis machines. There are two ways to do that - either by adding ascorbic acid or using granular activated carbon treatment. Medical centres that perform dialysis are responsible for purifying the water that enters the dialysis machines.
What about people who are sensitive to chemicals? The amount of chloramines will be extremely small - no more than 2 parts per million parts of water. If you are concerned that even this low concentration might cause problems for you, check with your physician. The predominant type of chloramines will be monochloramine (NH2Cl) and will be in the ratio of 5 parts chlorine to one part ammonia-nitrogen.
Will a carbon filter remove chloramines? Yes. However, it must contain high quality granular activated carbon and you must permit sufficient contact time between the water and the carbon.
Will reverse osmosis remove chloramines? No. Salts can be caught by the permeable membranes but chloramines pass through easily. “ALWAYS US AN RO WHICH INCORPORATES A QUALITY CARBON FILTER” The very latest 4-5-6 Stage Reverse Osmosis System are most efficient in removing things like Chloramines. .
Will chloramines be removed by boiling the water? No. Boiling is not an effective method of removing chloramines from water. The only practical methods for removing chloramines from water are using a water conditioner which contains a de-chloraminator or by using granular activated carbon.
Department of Water Supply County of Maui 200 South High Street Wailuku, HI
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DISTILLATION UNITS - Distillation removes most impurities from water, including minerals such as nitrate, sodium, and sulphate, and many organic chemicals. General Description Distillation units boil water to create steam which is then condensed and collected as purified water. Most impurities remain in the heating chamber and must be periodically removed. Units vary from the kitchen countertop size to larger units. Limitations Removal of minerals produces water that can have a bland taste. Because a kitchen location close to point of use is preferred for smaller units, counter or cabinet space must often be given up. Also, distillers are expensive to operate. Some distillers allow contaminants with a boiling point lower than water (e.g. some pesticides and volatile solvents) to vaporize with the water and re-condense with the treated water, which means they remain in the treated water. Others have a volatile gas vent that releases these products to the atmosphere. Maintenance Design of the unit is important because minerals and other contaminants accumulate in the boiling chamber and can interfere with the operation of the unit. Hard water can cause scaling in a distiller. Some units are easily cleaned by hand while others require washing with a strong acid.
Distillation-Works by boiling the water (leaving impurities behind), and then condensing the steam again.
What it can generally remove to a certain extent: Most contaminants.
What it generally can't remove: May have difficulty removing volatile organic compounds such as THM, so you may have to combine it with other filters.
General Description Distillation units boil water to create steam which is then condensed and collected as purified water. Most impurities remain in the heating chamber and must be periodically removed. Units vary from the kitchen countertop size to larger units.
Limitations Removal of minerals produces water that can have a bland taste. Because a kitchen location close to point of use is preferred for smaller units, counter or cabinet space must often be given up. Also, distillers are expensive to operate.
Some distillers allow contaminants with a boiling point lower than water (e.g. some pesticides and volatile solvents) to vaporize with the water and re condense with the treated water, which means they remain in the treated water. Others have a volatile gas vent that releases these products to the atmosphere.
Maintenance Design of the unit is important because minerals and other contaminants accumulate in the boiling chamber and can interfere with the operation of the unit. Hard water can cause scaling in a distiller. Some units are easily cleaned by hand while others require washing with a strong acid.
Pros and cons: Very effective, but slow and relatively expensive to buy and run (uses a fair amount of electricity).
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FLOURIDE has been added to drinking water since the 60s and '70s as it has a proven record of reducing tooth decay.
However, fluoride protection is now available from many more sources - eg many types of toothpaste, from fluoride treatments from your dentist. Many Critics state that fluoridated water is uncalled for, as it may lead to dental fluorosis (mottled teeth) in people who ingest too much, and it is not known what the potential health risk of drinking fluoridated water over a lifetime. Fluoridation / Fluoride - Toxic Chemicals in Your Water
Note: For more information on health-building techniques, please see
Fluoride compounds which are put in water (fluoridation), toothpaste and supplement tablets (including some vitamins) were they tested for safety before approval. Recent research by scientists not associated with dental trade:
1) Neurotoxic and Lowers IQ- Neuro toxicologist and former Director of toxicology at Forsyth Dental Centre published research showing that fluoride built up in the brains of animals when exposed to moderate levels. Damage to the brain occurred and the behaviour pattern of the animals was adversely affected. Offspring of pregnant animals, receiving relatively low doses of fluoride showed permanent effects to the brain which were seen as hyperactivity (ADD-like symptoms). Young animals and adult animals given fluoride experienced the opposite effect -- hypo activity or sluggishness. The toxic effect of fluoride, on the central nervous system, was subsequently confirmed by previously-classified government research. Two new epidemiological studies which tend to confirm fluoride's neurotoxic effects on the brain have shown that children exposed to higher levels of fluoride had lower IQs.
2) Alzheimer's disease and dementia-A study published in Brain Research shows that rats drinking only 1 part per million fluoride (NaF) in water had histologic lesions in their brain similar to Alzheimer's disease and dementia. In addition, evidence was seen pointing to possible damage to the blood brain barrier from extended fluoride exposure. This study was the third in a series of papers published by Varner et al. Brain Research Vol. 784 No. 12 p 284-298 (1998). Results of this recent study and other studies showing significant dangers from low-level fluoride exposure were presented at a recent scientific symposium.
3) Causes Cancer- the Department of Health in New Jersey found that bone cancer in male children was between two and seven times greater in areas where water was fluoridated. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) researchers confirmed the bone cancer-causing effects of fluoride at low levels in an animal model. A new study has shown that fluoridation of water is linked to uterine cancer deaths.
4) Changes Bone Structure-Changes Bone Structure and Strength Fluoride gradually build up in the bones and causes adverse changes to the bone structure. Quite a few studies have shown that fluoridation leads to increases in hip fractures. The tensile strength of the hip is destroyed over time by fluoride ingestion.
5) Causes Birth Defects and Perinatal Deaths-A toxicologist in the United Kingdom recently found that perinatal deaths in a fluoridated area was 15% higher than in neighbouring non-fluoridated areas. The fluoridated area had a higher socioeconomic status and would have been expected to have less perinatal deaths. The fluoridated area also had a 30% higher rate of Down's syndrome. Chile banned fluoridation because of research by the world-renowned researcher, Dr Albert Schatz, which showed a link to infant deaths due to fluoridation.
6) Proven Ineffective-Fluoride compounds in water and in supplements do not provide any significant cavity-protecting effects. All of the recent large-scale studies of water fluoridation have shown that there are no positive effects. There is scientific evidence that increased fluoride exposure leads to increased levels of caries. That is why countries without fluoridation have shown an equal improvement in dental health as those with fluoridation. Even pro-fluoridation scientists admit that there is not any properly-conducted research showing that fluoride supplements help prevent cavities. (Note: check vitamins carefully to be sure they do not include fluoride.)
7) Impairs Immune System-Independent research has shown that fluoride impairs the functioning of the immune system. In the United States, where toxic fluoride compounds are regularly added to water and given to children since the 1960s and 1970s, we are beginning to see an overwhelming number of people of that generation who are developing chronic immune system disorders.
1.Causes Acute Adverse Reactions-Several double-blind studies have shown that fluoridated water can often cause acute adverse reactions (in addition to the chronic poisoning effects discussed below). Some of the effects seen in double-blind studies include: gastrointestinal symptoms, stomatitis, joint pains, polydipsia, headaches, visual disturbances, muscular weakness, and extreme tiredness. An enlightening review of a book by one famous and well-respected researcher from The Netherlands who found adverse reactions in double-blind experiments can be read here.
2. Causes Initial Stages of Skeletal Fluorosis-Fluoride can cause severe skeletal fluorosis at high levels. Chronic, long-term exposure to levels of fluoride commonly found in water and food in the U.S. can cause the beginning stages of skeletal fluorosis including: pains in bones and joints, sensations of burning, pricking, and tingling in the limbs, muscle weakness, chronic fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, reduced appetite, backache, osteoarthritis, etc. In fact, decades of ingestion of fluoride from water and other common sources can be expected Human to cause these symptoms in large numbers of people based on calculations of fluoride intake and excretion. (Keep in mind that fluoride is a cumulative poison since it builds up in the body of years.) Very few healthcare practitioners are capable of diagnosing such a condition because healthcare practitioners are not trained to test for or recognize the effects chronic poisoning from fluoride.
3. Increases Lead and Arsenic Exposure-Fluoride compounds put into water are often contaminated with lead, arsenic and radio nuclides since the fluoride compounds are toxic waste by products which largely come from pollution scrubbers of fertilizer plants. A study published in 2000 Med&list_uids=11233755&dopt= Abstract. Showed that the dumping of toxic silicofluoride compounds into water ("fluoridation") causes an increase in blood lead levels in children.
4. Fluoride Causes Osteoarthritis-In a study published in Rheumatology International in 2001, researchers found a link between fluoride exposure and the development of osteoarthritis. The level of exposure that caused osteoarthritis is common in the United States.
5. Contributes to the Development of Repetitive Stress Injury-A clinical study in New Zealand showed that fluoride ingestion may be a contributing factor in the development of Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI) since such ingestion may encourage the development of apatite crystal formation. Elimination of fluoride plus regular supplementation of magnesium appeared to help RSI patients considerably.
6. Causes Permanent Disfigurement of the Teeth in Many Children-A very large and increasing number of children are experiencing dental fluorosis which is a permanent adverse structural change to the teeth.
7. Inhibits Key Enzymes -As fluoride builds up in different parts of the body over decades it can disrupt the actions of many key enzymes. This fact has been known for a long time.,%201943,%20Editorial
8. Suppresses Thyroid Function-Fluoride was given at low levels during the early to mid 20th century as an effective way of suppressing thyroid function and treating hyperthyroidism. Articles and research can be found on the Thyroid web page.
9. Causes Large Numbers of Acute Poisonings-Fluoride is an extremely poisonous substances at exceptionally low doses and has caused a large number of acute poisonings. This is why a poison warning is now required on fluoridated toothpastes sold in the U.S.
10. Independent Experts Oppose Dumping Fluoride into Water-Over 1500 professionals at the US EPA, including toxicologists and risk assessment experts voted unanimously to oppose the fluoridation initiative in California because of the health risks involved. See summary or official EPA union statement Even the Canadian Dental Association Consultant and Researcher urged people to avoid drinking fluoridated water.
11. Unethical-Fluoridation amounts to forced medication of the water supply. Such practices demonstrate a complete lack of ethics on the part of its promoters. Studies as early the 1930s showed extreme hazards to man and the environment due to fluoride dumping and exposure. Companies and organizations involved used the promotion of "fluoridation" as a way to avoid lawsuits due to dumping toxic wastes and later for economic gain. Please read the short history of fluoridation for more detailed information.
12. Banned in Many Countries-Fluoridation is not legal or not used in the overwhelming number of countries including industrialized countries. Please see Fluoride Status of Countries web page.
Many independent researchers, organizations, holistic healthcare experts and a growing number of dentists who avoid the use of toxic substances are warning their patients to avoid fluoridated water and fluoridated toothpaste and to definitely not give children any fluoride since they appear to be more susceptible to the neurological toxicity from fluoride. If your water department adds toxic fluoride compounds to the water, the best course of action is usually to drink and cook with bottled "spring" water. Carbon filters do not remove fluoride compounds to any significant extent. Avoid putting fluoridated water in humidifiers. Many non-organic juices have large amounts of fluoride from pesticide residues. It is best to juice your own vegetables and fruits from organic produce or go to a health food store to purchase organic juices.
Avoid toothpastes that have fluoride even if the manufacturers claim that the fluoride came from "natural" sources. Even though topical fluoride treatment may have an effect to help rematerialize cavities at the early stages, the combination of a healthy diet, proper dental hygiene and saliva can have a similar effect. It is impossible to avoid swallowing some fluoride from fluoridated toothpaste. I have tried various toothpastes and current use the natural Weleda toothpaste with baking soda. I like that fact that it does not contain fluoride or the detergent, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS).
More detailed information about fluoride and proper dental care:
• Fluoridation Does Not Prevent Tooth Decay l
• Fluoride: Detailed General & Scientific Information
• Fluoride: Journal of the International Society for Fluoride Research /
• Parents of Fluoride Poisoned Children: Main Page
• Thyroid Page
• Scientific Statement Signed By 1,500+ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Scientists and Professionals
• (Statements by Scientific and Medical Experts)
• Fluoride Action Network
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FLUORIDATION STATUS of some countries- Despite dental pressure, 99% of western continental Europe has rejected, banned, or stopped fluoridation due to environmental, health, legal, or ethical concerns
Only about 5% of the world population is fluoridated and more than 50% of these people live in North America. The Danish Minister of Environment recommended against fluoridation in 1977 because "no adequate studies had been carried out on its long-term effects on human organ systems other than teeth and because not enough studies had been done on the effects of fluoride discharges on freshwater ecosystems."
"In 1978, the West German Association of Gas & Water Experts rejected fluoridation for legal reasons and because 'the so-called optimal fluoride concentration of 1 mg per L is close to the dose at which long-term damage [to the human body] is to be expected.' "
Quotes from: Hilleman B, "FLUORIDATION: Contention won't go away," Chemical and Engineering News, 1988 Aug, 66:31 (The [ ] brackets were in the original article)to see original letter from a country, click in left column
Country Fluoridation Status


BANNED: "not allowed"


REJECTED: "toxic fluorides" NOT added


REJECTED: encourages self-determination – those who want fluoride should get it themselves.


STOPPED: " not favour or recommend fluoridation of drinking water. There are better ways of providing the fluoride our teeth need." A recent study found ..."no indication of an increasing trend of caries..."


STOPPED: A recent study found no evidence of an increasing trend of caries


REJECTED: "...toxic fluorides have never been added to the public water supplies in Denmark."


REJECTED: "...drinking water should not be fluoridated"


BANNED: "not allowed". No safety data available!

The Netherlands

Inevitably, whenever there is a court decision against fluoridation, the dental lobby pushes to have the judgment overturned on a technicality or they try to get the laws changed to legalize it. Their tactics didn't work in the vast majority of Europe.


STOPPED: for technical reasons in the '60s. However, despite technological advances, Hungary remains un fluoridated.


REJECTED: "...may cause health problems..." The 0.8 -1.5 mg regulated level is for calcium-fluoride, not the hazardous waste by-product which is added with artificial fluoridation

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GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES-They live in the human intestine and cause diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal cramps, weakness and chronic fatigue. These debilitating symptoms may persist for months. Media Release - The Hon Dr Michael Wooldridge, Federal Minister for Health and Aged Care ..September 2000 - The Ministers said that Cryptosporidium and Giardia occasionally occur in drinking water supplies following contamination by human or animal faeces. This may occur during periods of unusually high rainfall when they can enter the water supply via surface run-off. This is what happened in 1998 in Sydney, resulting in people having to boil their drinking water. Both organisms can infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans, resulting in persistent diarrhoea. In severely immune-compromised people, the infection can be life threatening. How do these parasites cause illness? Both parasites produce cysts that are very resistant to harsh environmental conditions. When ingested, they germinate, reproduce, and cause illness. After feeding, the parasites form new cysts, which are then passed in the faeces. Studies with human volunteers have shown that ingestion of only a few cysts will cause illness. What are the symptoms? Diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, gas, malaise, and weight loss are the most common symptoms caused by Giardia. Vomiting, chills, headache, and fever may also occur. These symptoms usually surface six to 16 days after the initial contact and can continue as long as one month.
Note: Filters collect germs from water, so someone who is not HIV infected or immune impaired should change the filter cartridges. Anyone changing the cartridges should wear gloves and wash hands afterwards. Filters may not remove Cryptosporidium as well as boiling does because even good brands of filters may sometimes have manufacturing flaws that allow small numbers of Cryptosporidium to get in past the filter. Selection of NSF-Certified filters provides additional assurance against such flaws. Also, poor filter maintenance or failure to replace the filter cartridges as recommended by the manufacturer can cause a filter to fail.
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HOME WATER TREATMENT DEVICES The NSF Water Treatment Device Certification Program requires extensive product testing and unannounced audits of production facilities. The goal of this program is to provide assurance to consumers that the water treatment devices they are purchasing meet the design, material, and performance requirements of national standards. Selecting and Using Water Treatment Devices Many consumers have difficulty determining whether they actually need a water treatment system or they are not sure what type of system would be best for them. The choice regarding whether or not to install and use a water treatment system is up to you. If you have identified a specific contaminant whose presence in your water is causing you concern, you can use the drinking water treatment units online product database to try to locate products that have been certified to reduce that specific contaminant. Consumers are encouraged to educate themselves about the quality of their current drinking water supply. By attempting to identify the contaminants that are present in your water supply, you can then ensure that you are selecting a water treatment system that will be capable of treating those specific contaminants. It is important to keep in mind that all home water treatment devices need regular maintenance to operate effectively. Please read the operating manual that comes with your water treatment system to ensure you are operating your system in accordance with the manufacturer's directions. Filter cartridges should be changed on a regular basis as recommended by the manufacturer.
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For a complete list of NSF-certified drinking water treatment products, please visit our drinking water treatment units online product database.
For further questions regarding NSF or any of its product certification programs, please contact our Consumer Affairs Office. , which provides detailed information on many of the contaminants and treatment chemicals, which are commonly found in water supplies.
To assist consumers in obtaining further information on the subject of water quality and treatment, NSF has assembled the following list of resources:
• Environmental Protection Agency
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HOUSEHOLD WATER TREATMENT-When single water quality problems are identified, one water treatment device may be adequate. In many cases, however, more than one problem is present, requiring a combination of water treatment devices. A household treatment system should take into account the most practical and effective device to treat each problem, the order these devices should be placed in the system, and the intended use of the water-- for drinking, laundry, or all household uses.
Definition of Terms
ACIDITY - A condition of water when the pH is below 7. See pH.
ALKALINITY - A condition of water when the pH is above 7. See pH.
BACK WASHING - The process of reversing the flow of water to restore or clean a filter.
FLOW RATE - The quantity of water available or needed commonly measured in gallons per minute, per hour, or per day.
GRAINS PER GALLON - The weight of a substance, in grains, in a gallon. Commonly, a grain of minerals per gallon of water is a measure of water hardness. 1 grain per gallon = 17.1 milligrams per litre.
HARDNESS MINERALS - Minerals dissolved in water that increases the scaling properties and decrease cleansing action usually calcium and magnesium.
ION EXCHANGE - Process whereby one mineral is substituted for another.
NEUTRALITY - A condition of water when the pH is at 7. (Neither acid nor alkaline) See pH.
OXIDATION - Causes the impurities to precipitate, and this reduces water impurities, such as iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide, and many organics.
PEAK USE RATE - The flow rate necessary to meet the expected maximum water demand in the system.
pH - A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of water. Below 7 is acid, above 7 is alkaline.
REGENERATION - Process which restores the ion-exchange material (zeolite or resin beads) to useable condition.
SHOCK CHLORINATION - Using high dosages of chlorine (200 to 500 milligrams per litre)
SOFTENING - The process of removing hardness caused by calcium and magnesium minerals
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ION EXCHANGE - resins that attract either positively or negatively charged chemicals. Most models contain a mixture of both types. What it can generally remove to a certain extent: Depending on the resin used, cations (positively charged chemicals such as metals) or anions (negatively charged chemicals such as fluoride and nitrate). What it generally can't remove: Organic chemicals such as pesticides, chlorine. Pros and cons: Doesn't work as well when the water contains a lot of dissolved solids (which may be the case in an unfiltered water supply). The filter cartridge requires frequent changing, so there are ongoing costs.
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IONISED WATER . Water Ionisers - Electrolyzed Alkaline Water Filters Separating water into two streams of alkaline mineral rich water and acid mineral rich water. A series of magnetically charged plates and a ceramic separator filament. As water passed between the plates, the magnetic field drew alkaline minerals to one side of the ceramic filament, and acid to the other.
Ionizer-Ionized Water is one of the greatest preventative health advances and technological marvels of the 20th century, yet it has gone almost entirely unnoticed. Ionized Water is a powerful Antioxidant providing the body with tremendous amounts of oxygen and therefore lots of Energy. It is very Alkaline and helps neutralize and flush acid waste from the body, which can encourage disease. It is a superior Hydrator and Detoxifier because Ionized Water molecule clusters have been "reduced" in size (from 10 to 5) and therefore is "lighter". Ionized Water's smaller size allows it to hydrate your body more effectively, pushing out toxins as it easily passes through your body's tissue. The world's best selling water ioniser is JA-303. It comes with the large 5-plate polymer ion-plated platinum coated titanium ionising plates (est. life 20 yrs, latest Japanese University technology). It produces an Ionized Water of about 10.0 pH or higher, depending on your water source. Regarding quality and ionisation strength, the Water Ioniser JA-303 is comparable to any other water ioniser on the market. First, water flowing into the Ioniser passes through a multi-layered filter to remove contaminants. Next, the Ioniser re-arranges the minerals in the water, according to their electrical charge. This takes place in the ionisation chamber, which is divided into two compartments by a diaphragm or membrane. One side has positive electrodes (cathode) and the other has negative electrodes (anode). When the filtered water enters the ionisation chamber, the negative electrodes attract the positive alkaline minerals to their compartment; while the positive electrodes attract the negative acid minerals to theirs. So one side has only alkaline minerals and the other only acid, at which point alkaline water flows out from the Ionisers top outlet, and acid water from the bottom. Alkaline water contains the minerals essential to our health – calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and silicon. This water is highly beneficial in neutralizing body acids. Acid water on the other hand can be used in place of hydrogen peroxide and vinegar, e.g. for washing vegetables. It has a shortage of electrons giving it the ability to oxidize and sterilize. You can use a simple pH test kit to assess the alkalinity or acidity of the water. Most Ionisers include this. You can also test the ORP – that's oxidation reduction potential, or level of anti-oxidants in alkaline water. Actual clinical experience of doctors administering ionized water is proving the validity of the laboratory research that led to the original manufacture of Ionisers. Gabriel Cousens, M.D., writes in "Conscious Eating" (2000): "Japanese and some American hospital research has found ionized water useful for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, intestinal problems, liver problems, and other chronic diseases. Alkalinised ionized water can play a powerful role in reversing the degenerative results of an acid system. This is a revolutionary health breakthrough."
Dr. Robert O. Young in his book “The pH Miracle for Weight Loss: Balance Your Body Chemistry, Achieve Your Ideal Weight” (2005) endorses alkaline water Ionisers. Watch his CNN interview here at (quick video).
Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman, M.D. report that: “A key component of [our] Longevity Program is reducing free radical damage, a chief factor in disease and aging. The negative ions in alkaline water are a rich source of electrons that can be donated to these free radicals, neutralizing them and stopping them from damaging healthy tissues ... Another benefit of drinking alkaline water is that ... you combat metabolic acidosis and improve absorption of nutrients ... Dr. Grossman has had many patients report of health benefits they have experienced from drinking alkaline electron-rich water.” (see
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IRON REMOVAL Equipment-Iron filters remove iron and manganese that can cause staining of clothes and plumbing fixtures. Ferric iron usually appears as rust colour particles floating or settling in the water. Ferrous iron is in the dissolved form and cannot be seen in water. When water containing ferrous iron is exposed to air, the iron oxidizes and ferric iron is formed. Water with a high iron or manganese content is not considered a health problem, but can be very objectionable in taste, odour, or appearance if iron is present in amounts greater than 0.3 milligrams per litre or manganese is present in amounts greater than 0.05 milligrams per litre. Iron bacteria are nuisance organisms often associated with soluble iron in water. Because they cause a slime build-up, they can be quite objectionable with iron concentrations as low as 0.1 milligrams per litre ferrous (soluble) iron.
The presence of iron bacteria is indicated by a gelatinous slime on the inside wall of the toilet flush tank and gelatinous "rusty slugs" being discharged at the tap. High dosages (200 to 500 milligrams per litre) of chlorine (known as shock chlorination or disinfection) are required to control iron bacteria. Shock chlorination must include the well and pumping system.
General Description and Maintenance Five types of iron-removal equipment are available:
1) Iron Filter. Iron filters are only useful for removal of ferrous (soluble) iron and manganese; ferric iron will plug them. They look like water softeners but contain a bed of natural or synthetic manganese green sand. Manganese dioxide oxidizes iron and manganese and the oxidized particles are then filtered out in the lower part of the bed.
The filter bed must be back washed frequently to remove the accumulation of iron particles. For back washing, a flow rate more than double the normal service flow rate is usually required. The exhausted manganese must be recharged by adding potassium permanganate. Acid water below a pH of 6.8 will pick up manganese from the green sand and cause loss of oxygen exchange capacity. Therefore, neutralization treatment may be necessary. Also, the slime produced by iron bacteria will clog the filter.
2) Water softener. Water softeners contain a zeolite mineral in the resin that will remove soluble iron on an ion exchange basis (the same way calcium and magnesium are removed in water softening). Depending on the kind of zeolite used and the regeneration process, up to 5 milligrams per litre of soluble iron can be removed. The slime produced by iron bacteria will clog the zeolite and reduce its effectiveness.
3) Poly phosphate feeder. These units can handle up to 3 milligrams per litre of iron in solution. They contain a phosphate compound which coats the soluble iron and prevents its oxidation when the water is exposed to air. The compound is not effective against ferric iron that has already oxidized. Poly phosphate is only effective in cold water. Heating the water will release the iron so that oxidized iron accumulates in the water heater. The heated water will be rusty and unsatisfactory for home use.
4) Chlorinator and filter. Chlorination followed by filtration through a sand filter can remove any quantity of iron in any form. The chlorine oxidizes and precipitates the iron and the filter strains out the particles. Carbon filtration may be required to remove excess chlorine residue. This method also destroys iron bacteria. When the bacteria cannot be permanently eliminated by shock chlorination, continuous chlorination is required.
5) Aerator and filter. An alternative to chlorination for iron removal is that of aeration followed by filtration. An aerator introduces oxygen into the water, thereby causing ferrous iron to precipitate through oxidation. Aeration equipment for household use has become more available in recent years.
Limitations Iron removal from your water supply can involve complex choices. Careful planning is needed when iron removal equipment is used in conjunction with other water treatment equipment. The type of iron removal equipment chosen depends on the type and quantity of iron in the water, the characteristics of the water supply, other water treatment equipment in use, and the user's requirements for cost, ease of use, and maintenance.
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MAGNETIC SYSTEMS-Basically, this involves passing the water over or through a magnetic field. This in effect re-arranges, atoms, or ions in the water.
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MAGNETIC DE-SCALERS -Magnetic units do not clean or change pH. Some magnetic systems are used for de-scaling, pipes in hard water areas.
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MAGNETIC PLUS FILTER-When water flows through a magnetic field, the result can be softer water and a limited form of negative ionisation of the water, convey some antioxidant effect.
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NEUTRALISERS-this system treats corrosive (acidic) water by increasing alkalinity, resulting in a pH near 7.0. Reducing corrosively may also lower the concentration of harmful metals, such as copper and lead that may be dissolved from pipe walls and fittings.
General Description Passing the water through granular calcite (marble, calcium carbonate, or lime) is the most common method of home treatment. A mix of calcite and magnesium oxide also is used. If the water is very acidic or if a high flow rate is needed, a system to chemically feed soda ash, sodium carbonate, or caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) may be necessary.
Limitations and Maintenance Neutralizers using soda or sodium compounds increase the sodium content of water which may be a health concern. Using calcite to neutralize water increases calcium, which increases water hardness. These factors must be considered in your treatment choice. All systems require routine maintenance to replenish the chemical used to neutralize the water.
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OTHER WATER FILTERS-We have not included all systems here. There is a multitude of small household systems available. Many are carbon-based and have undersized capacity filters. Remember the lager the filter (10” seems to be the Industry Standard) the slower the flow the longer the contact time = better quality water.
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OZONE. Ozone is a powerful disinfecting and oxidising agent, successfully used in thousands of water treatment applications.
What is Ozone? Ozone is a natural component of the earth's upper atmosphere, where it is primarily formed Photo chemically. It can be recognised by the clean, fresh odour of air after an electrical thunderstorm, which is the result of low levels of ozone gas produced by lightning. The odour of ozone was first reported by Van Mauren in 1785, in the vicinity of an electrical discharge. In 1840, Christian Schonbein identified this characteristic odour as a previously undetermined compound. He named it ozone after the Greek word ozein, meaning to smell. Over succeeding decades several researchers experimented with the production and reactions of ozone; however the identity of the structure of the compound was confirmed in 1867 as tri atomic oxygen. This simply means the ozone molecule contains three oxygen atoms, having the chemical symbol O3. Ozone is nothing more than another molecular form of oxygen, the chemical symbol for which is O2. Ozone has been commercially used since 1893 when the first full-scale drinking water treatment application was implemented. Today, it is used in thousands of water treatment applications including the treatment of municipal water and wastewater, cooling towers, ultra pure water, marine aquaria, beverage industries, industrial process water, swimming pools, bottled water plants, aqua culture, food processing, and effluent treatment. For hydroponic applications, ozone treatment has sometimes proved an expensive and imperfect science. Ozone generators reduce the use of chemicals, the disposal of which is definitely harmful & destructive to our environment. Ozone is effective in destroying odours, because it actually kills the bacteria and destroys the compounds to blame for the smell. Ozone is a naturally occurring gas produced from oxygen atoms. The oxygen molecules are broken down into atoms by UV light at a specific frequency. These molecules then merge into bonded tri-atomic oxygen known as 'ozone'. Ozone has been known about for most of the 20th century. All Ozone products carry a full 12 months parts and labour warranty giving you complete peace of mind. In general, distillation and reverse-osmosis systems can get rid of (almost) all potential contaminants. But they're expensive and slow so if you'd rather use a cartridge filter (such as active carbon or ion exchange filters), you need to know what the problem is and select one or more cartridges accordingly. Keep in mind that you not only have to buy the filter, but there'll also be running costs for buying replacement cartridges or membranes, and perhaps for electricity. It's important you maintain your water filter carefully and regularly — in particular changing the cartridge when recommended. Otherwise it may make your water worse rather than better. Some cartridge filters come with a reminder or warning system that tells you when the cartridge is due to be replaced. Alternatively, record the date you put a new cartridge into the filter in a place where you see it regularly.
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REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEMS-Reverse osmosis (RO)Originally developed to treat water in submarines, the reverse osmosis process essentially draws water through an extremely fine membrane. The membrane act like an extremely fine filter to create Potable water from salty (or otherwise contaminated) water. The contaminated water is put on one side of the membrane and pressure is applied to stop, and then reverse, the osmotic process. Flow rate of RO water filters are slow, but it works. The result is tremendously fine filtered water.
RO has the ability to remove or reduce heavy metals, virus, bacteria & VOC's
Reverse osmosis, is a water purification process in which water is forced through a semi-permeable membrane that removes 90-99% of tap water impurities. The result is water that is free of minerals and other contaminants. Membrane type determines the amount of dissolved solids a unit is capable of removing. For example, Cellulose Tri-Acetate (CTA) membranes have a removal rate of 88-94%, Thin Film Composite (TFC) membranes remove between 94-98% of dissolved solids, and Hi-S Membranes have higher removal rates, between 97.5-99%, and are especially adept at removing silicates. Tap water often contains impurities. Include phosphate, nitrate, chlorine, and various heavy metals. High levels of phosphate and nitrate fuel aggressive algae growth, and copper, often present in tap water due to leaching from pipes, is highly toxic. Because RO filters remove practically all of these impurities, they are becoming more popular.
What is the difference between reverse osmosis and deionisation? Reverse osmosis and deionisation (DI) perform the same task of removing impurities from tap water. However, DI purifies water utilizing the principle of ion exchange to remove impurities and replaces them with pure water. In most instances, an RO unit serves as a well-rounded filtration method that removes the majority of impurities; coupled with a post deionisation filter, the resulting water is 99.9% pure. Many RO units are available as a combined RO/DI unit or are able to accommodate an add-on DI unit that simply attaches to your existing RO unit.
There are a few factors that affect the output of reverse osmosis units. These factors include; the source water pressure, temperature, and the amount of total dissolved solids within the source water. The ideal operating pressure for a RO (reverse osmosis) unit is 65 psi (pounds per square inch). An operating pressure of 45 psi will reduce the output of a unit by 50%. There are pressure gauges available to monitor the operating pressure of the system. If the operating pressure is too low, an RO pressure boosting pump can be added to increase the operating pressure to the ideal range. The temperature of the source water should ideally be in the 70° to 77°F range for optimal performance. A temperature of 50°F, or lower, will reduce the output of the unit by 50% or more. Either hot or a mix of hot/cold tap water should never be used for the source water due to the minerals that are added to the water from most water heaters. Finally, the amount of total dissolved solids in the source water can reduce the amount of water produced by a RO unit. The units are rated to treat water with a dissolved solid amount of 500 ppm or less. If your source water contains a higher concentration, it would be wise to install a mechanical pre-filter in line prior to the unit. These filters are available at most hardware stores. Because of the requirements of reverse osmosis units, it is wise to purchase a unit that is rated above the gallons per day that your needs require. How reverse osmosis works- A semi permeable membrane, like the membrane of a cell wall or a bladder, is selective about what it allows to pass through, and what it prevents from passing. These membranes in general pass water very easily because of its small molecular size; but also prevent many other contaminants from passing by trapping them. Water will typically be present on both sides of the membrane, with each side having a different concentration of dissolved minerals. Since the water is the less concentrated solution seeks to dilute the more concentrated solution, water will pass through the membrane from the lower concentration side to the greater concentration side. Eventually, osmotic pressure will counter the diffusion process exactly, and equilibrium will form.
The process of reverse osmosis forces water with a greater concentration of contaminants (the source water) into a tank containing water with an extremely low concentration of contaminants (the processed water). High water pressure on the source side is used to "reverse" the natural osmotic process, with the semi-permeable membrane still permitting the passage of water while rejecting most of the other contaminants. The specific process through which this occurs is called ion exclusion, in which a concentration of ions at the membrane surface from a barrier that allows other water molecules to pass through while excluding other substances.
Even with these advances, the "reject" water on the source side of a Reverse Osmosis (RO) system must be periodically flushed in order to keep it from becoming so concentrated that it forms a scale on the membrane itself. RO systems also typically require a carbon pre-filter for the reduction of chlorine, which can damage an RO membrane; and sediment pre-filter is always required to ensure that fine suspended materials in the source water do not permanently clog the membrane. Hardness reduction, either through the use of water softening for residential units or chemical softening for industrial use, may also be desirable in hard water areas.
Low Pressure (Residential) Systems -Low pressure RO systems generally refer to those systems with water feed pressure of less than 100 psi. These are the typical countertop or under sink residential systems that rely primarily on the natural water pressure to make the reverse osmosis process function; a typical system is shown schematically below.
Typical Point of Use Reverse Osmosis System - Countertop units typically have an un-pressurized storage tank; under sink units typically have a pressurized accumulator storage tank where the water pressure tends to increase as the tank fills. This pressurized system provides sufficient pressure to move the water from the under sink storage tank to the faucet. Unfortunately, this also creates a back pressure against the membrane, which can decrease its efficiency. Some units overcome this by using un-pressurized tanks with a pump to get the treated water where it is needed.
Low pressure units typically provide between 24 and 35 gallons per day of water (Pure-Pro System offer 50-80 gallons per day), Water purity can be as high as 95 percent of rejection. These systems can be highly affordable, under sink units starting at about US $500. These units produce water for a cost as low as five cents per gallon once maintenance and water costs are factored in. Maintenance usually requires replacing any pre- or post-filters (typically one to four times per year); and the reverse osmosis cartridge once every two to three years, depending on usage. What reverse osmosis treats - Reverse osmosis can treat for a wide variety of health and aesthetic contaminants. Effectively designed, RO equipment can treat for a wide variety of aesthetic contaminants that cause unpleasant taste, colour, and odour problems like a salty or soda taste caused by chlorides or sulphates.
RO can also be effective for treating health contaminants like arsenic, asbestos, atrazine (herbicides/pesticides). Fluoride, lead, mercury, nitrate, and radium. When using appropriate carbon pre-filtering (commonly included with most RO systems), additional treatment can also be provided for such "volatile" contaminants as benzene, trichloroethylene, Trihalomethanes, and radon. Some RO equipment is also capable of treating for biological contaminants like Cryptosporidium. The Water Quality Association (WQA) cautions, however, that while RO membranes typically remove virtually all known micro-organisms and most other health contaminants, design considerations may prevent a unit from offering foolproof protection when incorporated into a consumer drinking water system.
When looking for a product to treat for a given health contaminant, care should be used to find products that have been tested successfully for such purposes at a quality testing laboratory.
• (Stage 1) 5 Micron Sediment Filter: It is effective in removing dirt, rust and sand particles.
• (Stage 2) Reverse Osmosis Membrane: A thin film composite (TFC) high quality membrane that processes 50 gallons per day. It removes the following hard water contaminants that may be present in your water: lead, cooper, barium, chromium, mercury, sodium, cadmium, fluoride, nitrite, nitrate, and selenium.
• (Stage 3) Granular Activated Carbon Filter: It takes out 99% of the chlorine and organic chemicals. It provides enhanced reduction of taste, odour, and colour.
• (Stage 1) 1 Micron Sediment Filter:
• (Stage 2) CRF 3 Multi-media +Carbon
• (Stage 3) Reverse Osmosis Membrane:
• (Stage 4) Granular Activated Carbon Filter: • OPTIONAL
• (Stage 1) 1 Micron Sediment Filter: .
• (Stage 2) CRF 3 Multi-media +Carbon
• (Stage 3) Reverse Osmosis Membrane:
• (Stage 4) Granular Activated Carbon Filter
• (Stage 5) Addition of either Infra Red or Mineral, UV Disinfection
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Reverse osmosis and deionization (DI) perform the same task of removing impurities from tap water. However, DI purifies water utilizing the principle of ion exchange to remove impurities and replaces them with pure water. In most instances, an RO unit serves as a well-rounded filtration method that removes the majority of impurities; coupled with a post deionisation filter, the resulting water is 99.9% pure. Many RO units are available as a combined RO/DI unit or are able to accommodate an add-on DI unit that simply attaches to your existing RO unit.
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SEDIMENT FILTERS The Sediment or Mechanical cartridge filters are used to remove particles such as suspended solids, hair, dirt, rust, etc. The removal rating of such filters is typically 5 micron. These cartridges do not remove taste and Odour.
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SHOWER FILTER-We all take showers daily but most of us are unaware of the danger of chlorine.In various forms used to sanitize our water. Chlorine is used to kill living organisms in water; unfortunately we are a living organism. Whenever we take a shower we are breathing in chlorine fumes, used in World War 1 as Mustard Gas. This can’t be good for us. As well we absorb chlorine through the largest organ of our body, our skin. A good quality shower filter can help to stop this health risk. The added benefit of a shower filter is no dry skin and beautiful soft hair. is a metal alloy and targets mainly chlorine. Our economy KDF shower filter (for municipal water) uses the patented KDF copper-zinc alloy (manufactured by KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc; the most effective media there is to remove chlorine in high temperature shower water. KDF's performance actually improves the higher the water temperature, whereas carbon's (used by some) performance decreases! With this technology, our filter has been shown to effectively remove 97+% of this damaging chlorine, for up to 15 months (for 2 people) - 2 to 3 times longer than other filters. Treats about 18,000 gallons--get approximately 1800 five minute showers. KDF also removes iron and other heavy metals, sulphur, pesticides and it controls the mould and mildew in your shower Sediment filters are often used in dual-cartridge systems to prolong the life of the main cartridge. They mechanically filter particles, which would otherwise block the main filter.
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A. A positive link has been established between cancer and chlorinated water - 93% chlorinated water over a 15 year period will suffer higher Incidence of cancer of (source U.S.A. Department of Commerce report, 1980).
B. A link between coronaries `Coronaries/Cholesterol/Chlorine.'
C. Men and particularly women, trying to lose weight that are exercising and dieting may not achieve their Goals until they drink non-chlorinated water - Dr. Yeyda, Australian nutritionist.
D. Indigestion is caused by the chlorine in drinking water killing the natural flora (good bacteria) the intestines.
E. Fluoride in water has been linked to R.S.I. (Repetitive Smith, Melbourne, original promoter of Fluoride).
F. Insecticides, Pesticides, etc., have been linked to birth defect problems from contaminated water Coffs Harbour, the U.S.A., Japan and Asia.
G. P.C.B. contamination has occurred in reservoirs in Australia. PCB's are known carcinogens.
H. T.H.M.'s (Trihalomethanes) of which one is Chloroform (banned in 1978 as an anaesthetic because it is cancer causing) occur in 90% of waters that are chlorinated due to chlorine recombining with naturally occurring humic acid (synergism). T.H.M.'s are now known to cause cancer in humans and the EPA of the U.S.A. has issued new orders about T.H.M. levels and reduced the WHO recommended M.C.L.'s (maximum contamination levels) to zero. In Australia, WHO levels are accepted (though not necessarily met).
I. Legionnaires Disease - a pathogenic (disease causing) bacteria has contaminated drinking water supplies in Brisbane and Adelaide; lack of chlorine In water increases the risk, increasing the chlorine gives chlorine induced sickness.
J. The Giardia parasite virtually totally resistant to chlorine (it requires a contact with chlorine for 30 minutes at 250 times higher than the chlorine levels used to be destroyed) is endemic to M.S.V. drinking water. Severe outbreaks have occurred along northern IL S.Y. coastal towns, the resultant infection known as Giardiasis has been diagnosed in the Hunter Valley. Symptoms: in adults - rumbling diarrhoea, a bloated gut;
K. Cholera, Dysentery, Hepatitis, Amoebic Meningitis and occur naturally in Australian drinking water and are only lead to local outbreaks.
L. Goldfish will die within 20 minutes of contact with Chloramines, or higher levels of chlorine. Remember how years ago the miners carried a canary underground to check for foul air - when the canary died the miners got out. Are the goldfish trying to tell us something?
M. People suffering from gout are advised to drink a lot of water to help dissolve and flush toxic crystals forming at joints causing swelling and pain. Not only is normal raw water unpleasant to taste, but in its polluted state, does not have the same cleansing effect. Many people who suffered from gout have reported remarkable improvements and in some cases, total Improvement after drinking a lot of pure water.
N. High levels of calcium in water can cause arthritic conditions.
O. High sodium levels have been linked to heart disease. Natural contaminations, by heavy metals such as Barium, Arsenic and Mercury, have well documented health problems.
P. Asbestos pipes-Probably the big sleeper issue on the quality of water in Australia is the deadly past habit of using asbestos pipes. In fact, 60% of Australian drinking water is delivered today in asbestos pipes In some areas, asbestos fibre counts exceed laid down levels, but nothing is being done or 'said about this insidious problem. Yet we now know that asbestos is the cause of asbestosis, a severe lung cancer. This issue is bound to become a future story. 1. Pets love non-chemical water.
2. Outdoor and indoor plants thrive on non-chemical water.
3. Ice cubes, tea, coffee, juices, etc., all taste better on non-chemical water.
4. All soups, gravy, spaghetti, vegetables, etc., prepared from non-chemical water not only taste better - they are safe.
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WHAT IS TDS? TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) is the term given to the sum total level of substances dissolved in the water. Example, sea water has TDS level of about 35,000 ppm, (mostly salt). Most Melbourne suburbs have about 40-60 ppm (or milligrams per litre), Sydney about 130 ppm. Sth Aust. and WA have extremely high TDS. Only Deioniser, Reverse Osmosis and Distillation remove TDS; the result: fully purified water. The water coming out of other types of purifiers eg. a Carbon Filter, will have the same (or almost) the same TDS as the tap water! A simple test with a TDS meter will reveal this.
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ULTRA VIOLET DISINFECTION. UV-ultraviolet water sterilizers are intended to kill harmful micro-organisms-bacteria and viruses in untreated water supplies (Bore, Tank water or other water systems). Ultraviolet (UV) systems are installed by those who are concerned about coli form, e.coli, cryptosporidium, or Giardia contamination and those who seek piece of mind that their water is supply is being disinfected before consumption. Ultraviolet is becoming popular because of the low maintenance, easy operation, and inexpensive purchase cost and operating cost. The fact that unlike other treatments, UV does not introduce any harmful chemicals to your water. In fact, not only does it not add unwanted harmful chemicals like chlorine to your water. If you're not connected to town water, but use rain or bore water, it’s important to protect your supply from contamination — particularly with bore water — and inspect it regularly. For example, an animal carcass close to your bore can be a serious health threat, and herbicides or fertilisers may over time leach into your water supply. A dirty roof, peeling paint or bird droppings can affect the quality of collected rain water. Many water authorities or your local health department have brochures on what to look for, and how to maintain a storage tank. Have your water supply tested regularly; contact your local or state health department. It may check the water body you're drawing from as part of its own monitoring program, or it can test your water — in many cases free of charge if you have a health concern. It'll also be able to advise you on how to rectify a problem.
Efficient - virtually all micro-organisms are susceptible to UV disinfection.
Inexpensive - hundreds of Litres are purified for each $ of operating cost.
Safe - no addition of chemicals.
Chemical Free – unless added prior, there is no chlorine taste or corrosion problems.
Speedy - water is ready to use as it leaves the purifier.
Easy - simple installation and maintenance.
Automatic - continuous disinfection.
1) Water passes through the sediment filter and traps the particles, rust, scale and turbidity that affect the taste and appearance of water supply.
2) Water then passes through the Adsorb 99 filter and reduces chlorine, lead, mercury, iron, and hydrogen sulphide.
3) Water then passes through the carbon filter and reduces chlorine, unpleasant tastes, odours and other organic chemicals.
4) Filtered water passes through the ultraviolet purifier and flows into the space between the quartz sleeve and the chamber wall.
5) Suspended micro-organisms are exposed to the ultraviolet rays emitted by the germicidal lamp
6) Water leaving the purifier is ready for use.
UV Light Disinfection- Why its popularity is rising. With growing populations demanding quality public services, many countries-including less-developed ones-are searching for better ways to provide clean drinking water. There are many different purification methods from which to choose including filtration, chemical treatment, distillation and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Some of these methods are customarily used in conjunction with one another to provide purified water that meets certain health standards, e.g., USEPA and U.S. Public Health Guideline. When used together, these methods remove solids, neutralize adverse chemicals, and disinfect by killing bacteria and other micro-organisms. One inexpensive and efficient way of disinfecting the water supply is by irradiating it with UV light. It's known that UV light of wavelengths between 250 and 270 nanometres (UV-C or UVC band) is extremely effective in killing many species of bacteria, mould spores, viruses and other micro-organisms. The UV light causes DNA damage to the cells of the micro-organisms that leads to mutations and eventual cell death. Using UV radiation in this manner to purify water is popular among Europeans who have known about it for decades. Its use in the United States started in the early 1990s and is becoming ore prevalent especially with outbreaks of drinking water contamination by micro-organisms. Those incidents include a Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee in 1993 that killed over 100 people and in Las Vegas in 1994 that killed 43 people: as well as E. coli outbreaks in upstate new York at a county fair in 1999 that kill two and in Walerton, Ontario, Canada, in 2000 that killed seven people. In each case, hundreds and hundreds of thousands were made ill. Typical UV water purification systems rely on the movement of water through a vessel that contains a UV lamp positioned so its axis is aligned in the same direction as the water flow. This ensures maximum exposure of the water to the UV radiation as it passes across the lamp body. Many of these types of purifiers require pressurization to assist the flow of water through the device. Some, however, don't rely on pressurization. They use gravity instead as the primary means to move water through the system. This is particularly important in less-developed countries where the water supply may consist of smaller sites at many different locations. The designs of these systems typically consist of a flow tank, UV (germicidal) lamp, electronic ballast, and automatic shut-off valve to prevent water flow when the lamp in inoperable. This simple design means the user now has an economical way to purify his water supply that requires very little maintenance and uses a fraction of the energy as compared to other disinfecting methods such as distillation.
Advantages of UV-A few benefits of using this type of UV water purification scheme include simplicity, portability and affordability. To help realize these benefits, the UV purification system incorporates a lamp of suitable size and wattage to generate light of the proper wavelength with an electronic ballast to operate it. The electronic ballast plays an important role in how much UV the lamp generates. Dosage is a function of UV wavelength, intensity and time. Light intensity from the lamp is proportional to the electric current flowing through it, and is also affected by the frequency at which it's operated. Both of these parameters are controlled by the electronic ballast. Since many water purification systems are portable, they sometimes require power supplied from a battery rather that the typical AC source, i.e.,220 -volt outlet. The electronic ballast must be able to accommodate applications with this requirement. Some of the other features users might expect from the electronic ballast are small physical size, long life and high efficiency. This is important in remote or less developed areas where poser supplies and water quality may be more inconsistent.
In summary, UV irradiation is becoming a more viable and economical means of water purification when used in conjunction with other methods. Systems incorporating UV technology must be portable, affordable and easily maintained. Electronic ballasts can help system designers meet these requirements by offering products of small physical size, flexibility in design, and quick turnaround to help bring the system to market faster.
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VIRUSES Some viruses that can be found in water are potentially damaging. While disinfecting water usually kills most viruses, some survive and make you sick.
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PROTOZOA Includes cryptosporidium and Giardia. Can cause severe illness, and their cysts can often resist disinfection.
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WATER SOFTENERS. Water softeners remove the hardness minerals calcium and magnesium. Water exceeding about 7 to 8 grains per gallon hardness may interfere with the cleaning action of soaps and detergents, and cause scale build-up in hot water pipes, water heaters, and plumbing fixtures.
General Description The most common way to soften household water is to use a cation exchange water softener. A synthetic resin with a strong attraction for calcium, magnesium, and other positively charged metal ions (cations) is first saturated with sodium cations from a salt (sodium chloride) solution. As the water passes through the resin, the sodium exchanges with calcium and magnesium.
Softeners are automatic, semi-automatic, or manual depending on the system for regeneration of the resin. Each type is available in several sizes and is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before regeneration is necessary.
Limitations Individuals on a sodium-restricted diet should consult a physician before using softened water. A possible solution is to have drinking and cooking water lines bypass the water softener. Water softening units also remove small amounts of iron. However, using a softener to remove iron in naturally soft water is not advised. Refer to the iron filter section of this publication.
Maintenance When the resin is filled to capacity with calcium and magnesium, it must be recharged. Fully automatic softeners regenerate on a preset schedule and return to service automatically. Regeneration is usually started by a time clock, although some units start regeneration by water-use meters or hardness detectors.
Semi-automatic softeners have automatic controls for everything except for the start of regeneration. Manual units require manual operation of one or more valves to control back washing, brining, and rinsing.
In many areas, there are companies that provide a water softening service. For a monthly fee, the company installs a softener unit and replaces it periodically with a freshly charged unit. The replacement schedule depends on the water hardness and the amount of water used.
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WATER PURIFICATION TYPES. What do they do? (Water Filters)
Introduction Foul taste, smell, or colour of your household water may prompt you to investigate water treatment equipment. The publicity about water pollution problems may make you question the safety of your water supply. Or mineral scale build-up may cause you to invest in early replacement of plumbing fixtures and water-using appliances.
Before you attempt a quick and possibly costly remedy, take a first important step. Have your water analysed. A water analysis will help identify bacteria, minerals, or other pollutants that are present. Interpretation of the test results will help you determine whether the water needs to be treated and, if so, the type of treatment needed. The intended use of the water (whether for drinking, laundry, or all household uses) will also help determine the extent of treatment required.
Keep in mind that no single water treatment device treats all problems, and that all devices have limitations. See table for common water quality problems and suggested corrective procedures.
Do not assume that installation of water treatment equipment similar to that of your neighbours will be the answer to improving your household water quality. Different water supply sources, amounts and types of household uses, and many other variables affect the selection of the proper water treatment system. See Quick Reference to Common Water Treatment Devices
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If your water looks, smells or tastes strange, or if your clothing and plumbing (such as sinks and toilets) become stained by it. Ask your neighbours whether they have similar concerns. This may help to find out whether it's a general supply problem, or one caused by your home's plumbing. Talk to your water supplier about your concerns. If you've recognised a potential problem, tell them - it may help them assess and solve the problem more quickly. Ask them for the latest analytical results of your water supply, and the corresponding Drinking Water Guidelines recommendations. If you still have doubts, get a water sample analysed. Your supplier may do that free of charge, especially if there's a health concern. Your water supplier may be able to solve some aesthetic problems fairly easily by flushing the mains, while other problems may require more extensive cleaning or repair of the distribution system in your area, or work on your home's plumbing. If you've suffered damage (for example, rust-spotted clothes after a wash) you may be able to negotiate compensation from your supplier. What's the problem? Except for micro-organisms and lead, most of these contaminants are an aesthetic rather than a health problem, as long as they don't occur in very high concentrations. Http://
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Office 07 3397 1320 - Mobile 0481 352 533




P.O. Box 5175, Mt Gravatt East, Qld 4122

You can have confidence in dealing with a local small business SINCE 1998!

We post Australia wide.

Filter Specialist | Countertop | Under sinks | Reverse Osmosis Purifiers | UV Disinfection |